Aquitanian names reflect the heavy influences of the Franks upon the Roman and Celtic inhabitants of these lands. As such, their names contain Celtic, Germanic, and Roman elements.
Male Names: Use Frankish name and add the following: Aalard, Acostant, Alexis, Argius, Barnard, Beranger, Bovert, Burcan, Cadmar, Corneus, Danain, Daniel, Dragan, Elad, Emeric, Evrard, Gobert, Gundahar, Henri, Jaufre, Jules, Lancel, Lucan, Lucas, Morien, Nicholas, Patric, Remi, Renauld, Roger, Serin, Sevin, Thibaud, Thierry, Thomas, Victor, Xavier.
Female Names: Use Frankish name and add the following: Armide, Babette, Bethilie, Blandine, Brienne, Carelia, Cecile, Danielle, Diane, Edith, Elianor, Ethaine, Felise, Heloise, Helena, Irene, Jeanne, Liaze, Liliane, Lusiane, Lynn, Margot, Olivia, Priscilla, Raisende, Roxane, Sibille, Ursanne, Verrine.
Surnames: Like the Franks and Saxon, Aquitanians only use personal names. In place of surnames, noteworthy Aquitanian knights and nobles adopt nicknames based upon their homeland (i.e. de Ganis), traits (i.e. the Just), appearance (i.e. The Fair), or deeds (i.e. of the Long Hunt).
Some families, usually aristocratic, were identified by collective name taken from a famous forebear such as the Athelings, Gumeningas, Besingas, Baducings, Guthlacingas, the final ‘-ing’ element signifying ‘people of’.
Cymric names are similar to their modern Welsh equivalments.
Male Names: Addonwy, Aeron, Afan, Aneirin, Aeddan, Amig, Amlyn, Athrwys, Arddur, Buddfannan, Blaen, Bledri, Bradwen, Bleddig, Cadfannan, Cadfael, Cadwallon, Cilydd, Cynon, Cynfan, Cyfulch, Cynrain, Cunvelyn, Caradoc, Cibno, Ceredig, Cadlew, Cynwal, Clydno, Cynhafal, Dafydd, Defi, Dwyai, Edar, Edern, Eiddef, Erthgi, Elad, Eudaf, Biffin, Gwefrfawr, Gwegon, Gwion, Gwyn, Gwarddur, Gwern, Gwyleged, Gwrien, Gwraid, Gorthyn, Gwaednerth, Gwengad, Brugyn, Gwenabwy, Gwrfelling, Gwair, Graid, Geriant, Gwanon, Hyfaidd, Hywel, Ieuan, Llywel, Marchlew, Moried, Morien, Madog, Morial, Mynyddog, Merin, Neilyn, Nwython, Nai, Nerthaid, Neddig, Nidian, Owain, Padern, Pedrog, Ricerch, Rhodri, Rhufon, Rhun, Sawel, Seriol, Sywno, Tathal, Tathan, Tudfwlch, Tyngyr, Uren, Uwain, Ysgarran.
Female Names: Adwen, Annest, Angarad, Arianwen, Briant, Duddug, Collwen, Dwynwen, Eleri, Ffraid, Glesig, Glesni, Gwen, Heledd, Indeg, Leri, Lleucu, Llio, Melangell, Meleri, Nest, Nia, Tydfil
Surnames: Cymric last names are patronymic, derived from the father or an ancestor. Commoners sometimes take their surname from nicknames or, rarely, from occupational names.
Patronymic surnames link the person’s proper name to his or her father’s by adding ap, ab, or mab (son of) or ferch (daughter of) between their proper name and that of their father. As such Neifion, son of Adern, becomes Neifion ap Adern while Nia, daughter of Uren, is called Nia ferch Uren. An accounting of one’s lineage is patrilineal, appending the names of son (or daughter) to father, then a grandfather, and so on. As such Llewelyn ap Dafydd ab Ieuan ap Griffith ap Meredith denotes Llewelyn, son of Dafydd, son of Ieuan, son of Griffith, son of Meredith. “Ap” is sometimes abbreviated to by simply adding the letter “P” or “B” to the surname of one’s father: ap Owen becomes Bowen, ap Rhys becomes Price or Bryce, or ap Hywel becomes Powell.
Pronunciation Guide: Cymric vowels are long in stressed syllables. Stress is always on the next-to-last syllable, except in very long names, where there is a second, lighter stress on the first syllable to help move the word along.
(c) is roughly equivalent to English k
( w ) is roughly equivalent to English oo
(dd) is roughly equivalent to English th, as in the
(ff) is roughly equivalent to English
(f) is roughly equivalent to English v
(ll) is the “Welsh sound”, an aspirated l-sound. Put the front of your tongue on the roof of your mouth and blow the air out the sides, between your teeth.
Male Names: Adalmund, Aimon, Amalric, Arbogast, Archembaud, Arigius, Aurel, Baldric, Bardrim, Baudouin, Bernier, Bertmund, Brantome, Bretonnet, Brunehaut, Bruyant, Carolus, Childeric, Chlodobert, Clovis, Ernaut, Eustache, Fierbras, Fluvant, Gaidon, Galafre, Galien, Gaumadras, Gautier, Gilbert, Gilles, Girard, Godfroi, Grimoald, Gui, Guibert, Guillame, Guinemant, Gundovald, Gunthar, Hardouin, Harde, Hernaudin, Hernaut, Hervis, Hubert, Huges, Huidemar, Ingund, Isore, Jacquelin, Jean, Marc, Jerome, Jourdain, Julian, Landri, Leomund, Leovigild, Lothar, Louis, Maugis, Mercadier, Merovech, Milon, Naimes, Namus, Odovacer, Pepin, Piccolet, Philippe, Pierre, Renaud, Renier, Renouart, Richard, Robert, Roderic, Samson, Sigibrand, Sigimund, Tancred, Thierry, Theudebald, Theuderic, Varocher, Vincent, Vivien, Yon, Yves.
Female Names: Adeline, Aelis, Agnes, Aiglante, Alais, Alicia, Alienor, Alix, Amalon, Amalgard, Ameline, Anseir, Aregund, Aude, Basina, Beatrix, Belle, Bellisent, Berthild, Blond, Brunhild, Brunissent, Catherine, Cecilia, Clarissa, Clothild, Edith, Elisabeth, Erembourg, Ermengart, Esclarmonde, Flore, Fredegund, Galienne, Genevieve, Guiborc, Helissent, Helouise, Hermengart, Hildegard, Isabelle, Jacqueline, Jehanne, Jeannette, Joie, Josiane, Laurence, Lubias, Lutisse, Marguerite, Marie, Mathilde, Margalie, Mirabel, Nicole, Nicolette, Olive, Oriabel, Patronille, Pernelle, Poette, Rosamonde, Sigilind, Sybylle, Theudechild, Wisigard, Yde.
Surnames: Like the Saxons, Franks only use personal names. These names are often made up of two elements, often linked in some way with the parents’ names. For instance, Aldred and Edith might call their daughter Aldith as some elements were suitable for males and females. These names did not necessarily have any link in meaning between their two elements.
In place of surnames, noteworthy Frankish knights and nobles adopt nicknames based upon their homeland (i.e. de Ganis), traits (i.e. the Just), appearance (i.e. The Fair), or deeds (i.e. of the Long Hunt).
Surnames were not necessary for identification purposes although bynames were sometimes used. Although there was no inherited surname, some aristocratic families were identified by a collective name taken from a famous forebear, such as the Athelings, Gumeningas, Besingas, Baducings, or Guthlacingas; with the final ‘-ing’ element signifying ‘people of’.
Male Names: Aed, Aedan, Aeducan, Ailgel,Ailill, Airechtach, Amalgaid, Art, Baetan, Baeth, Berach, Berchan, Brion, Bruatur, Carthach, Cathal, Cenn, Cerball, Colcu, Comman, Congal, Cormacc, Daig, Diarmait, Donngal, Dunchad, Echen, Elodach, Eogan, Fachtna, Fedelmid, Finnchad, Flann, Guaire, Imchad, Laegaire, Lorccan, Maine, Murchad, Nathi, Ronan, Russ, Senach, Tadc, Tuathal, Ultan
Female Names: Aibhlinn, Aileen, Beibhinn, Bevan, Blaithnaid, Brigid, Cait, Cron, Derbail, Dunlaith, Eithrie, Finnguala, Flann, Gormlaith, Grainne, Lassar, Mor, Orlaith, Sadb, Siobhan, Sinead, Sorcha, Una
Clan Names: Every Irishman has a loyalty to his Clan. Select one from the lists here. In each name a “Mc” prefix means “son of,” and an “O” prefix means “grandson of or descendant of the person named. However, they actually mean the same thing since even the sons are of ancient times.
Similar names indicate a distant kinship, so that the O’Neils acknowledge a distant kinship with the McNeils. Likewise, clans from different parts of the island who have the same name acknowledge distant kinship.
Each clan is actually native to a very specific part of the kingdom, but no attempt has been made to locate these precisely within each kingdom for this edition.
• Ailech: O’Duffy, O’Mulligan, O’Farren, Mc Nelis, Mc Roarty, O’Kenny, O’Dever, Mc Grath.
• Connacht: O’Conor, O’Flynn, O’Fergus, O’Finan, O’Coyne, Mc Conneely, O’downey, O’Nihil, O’Dea, Mc Keane, Mc Donnell, O’Quinn, O’Brien, Mc Mahon, O’Grady, O’Madden, Mc Nevin.
• Dal Ariade: O’Neill Clanaboy, Mc Alister, O’Lynn, O’Lavery.
• Dal Riada: Mc Donnell, O’Quinn, O’Hara, Mc Neill, Mc Cleary, Mc Quillan, Mc Keown, O’Hood.
• Leinster: O’Conor Faly, O’Dempsey, O’Dunn, O’Byrne, O’Toole, Mc Morrough, Mc Gilpatrick, O’Doyle, O’Hartley, O’Nolan, O’Larkin, O’Shea, O’Duff, O’Ronan, O’Cullen.
• Long Isles (same as Dal Riada): Mc Donnell, O’Quinn, O’Hara, Mc Neill, Mc Cleary, Mc Quillan, Mc Keown, O’Hood.
• Meath: O’Reilly, O’Curry, O’Coffey, O’Connolly, O’Kelly, Mc Auley, Mc Gee, O’Casey, O’Connolly, O’Mulecdy.
• Munster: O’Kennedy, O’Meagher, O’Brien Arra, O’Mulrain, O’Conor Kerry, O’Sullivan Mor, Mc Carthy Muskerry, O’Callaghan, Mc Carthy Reagh, O’Sullivan, Beare, O’Fogarty, O’Noonan, O’Long, O’Shelly, Mc Sweeney.
• Oriel: O’Neill, Mc Nally, Mc Gorman, Mc Mahon, O’Hagan, O’Hanlon, O’Breslin, Mc Ardle.
(a) is roughly equivalent to English law
(c) is always hard, roughly equivalent to English cow
(d) is roughly equivalent to English j, as in joy
(e) is roughly equivalent to English veil
(g) is roughly equivalent to English, as in goal
(i) is roughly equivalent to English ee, as in fee
(o) is roughly equivalent to English show
(iu) is roughly equivalent to the English ew, as is rood
(s) is roughly equivalent to English sh, as in short
(t) is roughly equivalent to English ch, as in church
(ei) is roughly equivalent to English vine
(ow) is roughly equivalent to English owl
(ch) is roughly equivalent to Scottish loch
Male Names: Agnoin, Brude, Buban, Buiann, Cian, Cruithne, Drust, Fathecht, Golistan, Llifiau, Luchtai, Mailcon, Mais, Nechtan, Partolan, Peithan, Talorc, Wid.
Female Names: No female Pictish names have been recorded in history. Use Cymric and Irish names.
Surnames: Pict surnames are usually patronymic, linking a person to his or her father by placing mab (son of) or ferch (daughter of) between a person’s proper name and the father’s name.
Nicknames based on traits (“the loner”), places (i.e. “an Arcach”, meaning of The Orkneys), quirks (i.e. “Clag a’ Bhaile” meaning ‘the town bell’ for a loud person), or occupation (i.e. “Clachair” or stonemason) are also common.
Clan Names: Every Pict has a loyalty to his Clan. The word clan simply means children, and each clan is made up of a number of distinct familial branches that are descended from, or believe themselves to be descended from, a common ancestor. New clans contain septs or branches are founded when a powerful or prominent clansman establishes he own notable familial line within that clan. The clan chief is considered the head, or father, of the entire clan and, upon his death, is succeeded by an heir who is elected by clan members during the chief’s lifetime. Only the chief uses the Clan Name as his surname; all others use their patronymic surname or their given byname.
Roman citizens usually bore two to three elements in their names: a proper name, a surname, and, at times, an honorific.
Male Names: Albanus, Agorix, Arcavius, Avitus, Belletor, Burcanius, Caletus, Caracturus, Catianus, Cunobarrus, Cervidus, Dagwaldus, Decmus, Donicus, Dumnorix, Egbutius, Elvorix, Galerus, Gessius, Ingenvinus, Isatis, Ivimarus, Luonercus, Litumarus, Leddicus, Lupinus, Maccalus, Macrinus, Magunnus, Marullinus, Metunus, Molacus, Nemnogenus, Nonius, Novellius, Olennius, Pertacus, Primanus, Nertomarus, Sarimarcus, Sudrenus, Tanicus, Taurinus, Trenus, Vepgenus, Vibennis, Vitalinus, Ulprus, Voteporix.
Female Names: Except for the names ending in -rix, all male names can be feminized by changing the ending to “ia”. Thus Arcavius becomes Arcavia.
Surname: The surname or nomen designated a Roman citizen as a member of a family or clan. All members of an extended family share the same surname or nomen, and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
The nomen was an essential element of Roman nomenclature throughout Roman history, although its usefulness as a distinguishing element declined precipitously following the Constitutio Antoniniana, which effectively granted the nomen “Aurelius” to vast numbers of newly enfranchised citizens. Countless other “new Romans” acquired the nomen of important families in this manner during imperial times; in the fourth century Aurelius was surpassed in number by Flavius, and other names became quite common, including Valerius, Claudius, Fabius, Julius, and Junius.
Honorific: Honorific names were also used to distinguish branches of the family from one another, and occasionally, to highlight an individual’s achievement, typically in warfare.
Unlike the surname, which was passed down unchanged from father to son, an honorific or cogname could appear and disappear almost at will. They were not normally chosen by the persons who bore them, but were earned or bestowed by others, which may account for the wide variety of unflattering names that were used as cognames.
Examples of honorifics include Magnus (great), Maximus (greatest), Cicero (chick pea), Rufus (red-haired), Numidicus (from Numidia), Scaevola (left-handed), Eboricus (from York), Augustus (venerable).
Pronunciation Guide: remember that all C’s are hard, like K.
Male Names: Aelfric, Aescwine, Bassa, Beorhtric, Caedwalla, Caewlin, Centwine, Cenwalch, Cerdic, Coelred, Coelric, Coelwulf, Coenhelm, Conerad, Conewalch, Coenwulf, Cuthbert, Cuthred, Cuthwulf, Cyneagils, Cynewulf, Cynric, Eadbald, Eadberht, Eadric, Eardwulf, Edwin, Edgert, Ethilfrith, Ethelheard, Ethelred, Ethelwulf, Hengest, Hlothere, Horsa, Ine, Octa, Oeric, Osric, Oswald, Oswine, Oswulf, Oswy, Peada, Penda, Sigebryht, Wihtred, Wulfhere
Female Names: Aelflaed, Aelgifu, Aethelred, Burhred, Cuthburh, Cyneburh, Eadgifu, Eadgyth, Eadhild, Ealhred, Eormenburh, Hereswith, Raedburh, Sexburh, Wihtburh
Surnames: Saxons use personal names that are often made up of two elements, often linked in some way with the parents’ names. For instance, Aldred and Edith might call their daughter Aldith as some elements were suitable for males and females. These names did not necessarily have any link in meaning between their two elements.
For clarity’s sake, Saxon’s will sometimes identify themselves as their father’s son or daughter. As such the sons of Helgi may adopt Helgisson as a surname of sorts, while his daughters would be take Helgisdottir as their informal surname.
In place of surnames, noteworthy Saxon warriors and nobles adopt nicknames based upon their homeland (i.e. of the Dales, Lord of Hadding), traits (i.e. the Honey-Tongued, the Learned, the Reckless), appearance (i.e. The Fair, the Fat, the Tall, the Old, the Lame, Blue-Toothed, Swarthy-Cheeked), or deeds (i.e. of the Long Hunt, Far-Wanderer, Battle-Blessed, Head-Splitter).
Surnames were not necessary for identification purposes although bynames were sometimes used. Although there was no inherited surname, some great families were identified by a collective name taken from a famous forebear, such as the Athelings, Gumeningas, Besingas, Baducings, Guthlacingas, or Volsungs; with the final ‘-ing’ or ‘-ung- element signifying ‘people of’.